It is also spelt Romanian Stitch, and has these other names, Antique Stitch, Economy Stitch, Janina Stitch, Oriental Stitch and Indian Filling Stitch.
In Swedish it is called Rumänsk Söm.
In French, Point Roumain or Point Roman. (Thanks Mattia)
I came across this stitch in the library book 'American Crewel Embroidery' by Keiko Arakawa.
Ms Arakawa explains that it is the main stitch used for filling in plants and animals in American Crewel embroidery. It was developed by the early settlers in New England in the 17th century to save yarn and is therefore also known as Economy Stitch. It is a surface stitch which leaves only little wool on the reverse side.
It was not until I checked Rumanian Stitch in other stitch dictionaries and on the internet that I found that the traditional (English Crewel) Rumanian Stitch is 'uneconomical' and uses up considerably more crewel wool.
Traditional way 1-5 American Crewel way A - E
I have worked the stitches in Perle on Aida to show clearly where the needle enters and exits, but this should of course like all Crewel Embroidery be worked in wool on linen. Then the stitches will fill the motif beautifully.
On my Aida sampler:
Trace a floral design from the book, and fill in the petals and leaves with the 'economical' Rumanian Stitch.